The monoclonal antibodies, also known as ecombinant antibodies are one of the most important contributions of biotechnology to medical science. These are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell. These antibodies are injected into those patients who lack antibodies for a particular disease.
The technique for creation of these antibodies involves fusing certain Myeloma cells (cancerous B cells) , which can multiply indefinitely but cannot produce antibodies, with Plasma cells (non-cancerous B cells) , which are short lived but produce a desired antibody.
This wonderful technique helps a patient to cope with a particular disease by increasing the number of antibodies by many fold in the body. These antobodies, circulate in the body until they find and hook into the target antigen. These antibodies are for a single antigen.
Tumor cells that are able to replicate endlessly are fused with mammalian cells that produce a specific antibody which results in fusion called HYBRIDOMA that continuously produce antibodies. These antibodies are called monoclonal because they come only from one type of cell, which is the HYBRIDOMA cell.
Some famous companies like J and J and Cytogen are manufacturers of monoclonal antibodies.